Postoperative adjuvant therapy after esophagectomy can significantly improve the overall survival rate of patients with locally resectable esophageal cancer. chemotherapy, so as to provide a reliable basis for clinicians to formulate the best chemotherapy regimen for patients with esophageal cancer after esophagectomy. Methods: We will search Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cancerlit, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for related studies published before December 1, 2019 without language restrictions. Two review authors will search and assess relevant studies independently. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs, and prospective cohort studies will be included. We will perform subgroup analysis in sex, age, ethnicity, and tumor stage of esophageal cancer patients. Results: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Conclusion: The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis will provide a basis for clinicians to formulate the best chemotherapy regimen for patients, as well as a research clue for clinical researchers in this field. The results of Synephrine (Oxedrine) this study will expand the treatment options for esophageal patients, but due to the nature of the disease and intervention, large sample Mouse monoclonal to MUSK clinical trials are not abundant, so we will include some high-quality small sample trials, which may cause high heterogeneity. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019125000. Keywords: esophageal cancer, immunotherapy, inhibitors, PD-1 and PD-L1, platinum-based chemotherapy 1.?Introduction Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies with a gradual increase in morbidity, ranking 7th in the incidence and 6th in the mortality of all malignancies worldwide.[1C3] Esophageal cancer is a highly malignant tumor with a strong tendency of invasion and metastasis.[4C5] Despite multiple treatment methods, it is still one of the main causes of cancer-related death in the world. The 5-year survival rate of stage I patients was about 90%, while that of stage II patients was reduced to 45%, that of stage III patients was 20%, and that of stage IV patients was only 10%. Patients with esophageal cancer are usually diagnosed in the middle or advanced stages of tumor. The combination of conventional platinum-based chemotherapy and surgical treatment can significantly improve the overall survival rate of patients, but Synephrine (Oxedrine) the prognosis of patients with esophageal cancer is still very poor. [8C11] Immunotherapy is a relatively new field in the treatment of esophageal cancer. Some clinical trials reported that programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors alone have better application prospects than platinum-based chemotherapy.[12C18] We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy comparison between immunotherapy and traditional platinum-based chemotherapy, so as to provide a reliable basis for further promotion of immunotherapy and for clinicians to formulate the best chemotherapy regimen for patients with esophageal cancer after Synephrine (Oxedrine) esophagectomy. 2.?Objective We will assess the efficacy of postoperative platinum-based chemotherapy and PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors alone with or without radiotherapy for patients with esophageal cancer. 3.?Methods This protocol is conducted according to the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. We will report the results of this study adhere to the PRISMA guidelines. This protocol has been registered in the PROSPERO network (registration number: CRD42019125000). 3.1. Eligibility criteria 3.1.1. Types of studies Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs, and high-quality prospective cohort studies published or unpublished will be included, which must have been completed and compared postoperative platinum-base chemotherapy versus PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors alone for patients with esophageal cancer. 3.1.2. Types of participants The participants will be adults identified as having locally resectable esophageal cancers histologically or cytologically verified who have been treated with platinum-based chemotherapy or PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors after esophagectomy. No limitations on sex, ethnicity, financial status, and education will be used. 3.1.3. Sorts of interventions Based on the method of postoperative adjuvant therapy for sufferers with locally resectable esophageal cancers, the studies included is going to be split into the following types. Postoperative platinum-base chemotherapy.